I have a dear old friend who is a brilliant photographer and artist. Years ago, when he was teaching at the Art Center College of Design in Pasadena, CA, he would occasionally ask me to substitute for him in class as he travelled the world to take photos. He would introduce me to the class as the person at the LAPD who authenticates digital media – the guy who inspects images for evidence of Photoshopping. Then, he’d say something to the effect that I would be judging their composites, so they’d better be good enough to fool me.
So many requests for authentication begin with the statement, “tell me if it’s been Photoshopped.” This request for a “blind authentication” asks the analyst to prove a negative. It’s a very tough request to fulfill.
In general, this could be obtained with a certain degree of certainty if the image is verified to be an original from a certain device, with no signs of recapture and, possibly verifying the consistency on the sensor noise pattern (PRNU).
However, it is very common nowadays to work on images that are not originals but have been shared on the web or through social media, usually multiple consecutive times. This implies that metadata and other information about the format are gone, and usually the traces of tampering – if any – have been covered by multiple steps of compression and resizing. So you know easily that the picture is not an original, but it’s very difficult to rely on pixel statistics to evaluate possible tampering at the visual level.
Here’s what the US evidence codes say about authentication (there are variations in other countries, but the basic concept holds):
- It starts with the person submitting the item. They (attorney, witness, etc.) swear / affirm that the image accurately depicts what it’s supposed to depict – that it’s a contextually accurate representation of what’s at issue.
- This process of swearing / affirming comes with a bit of jeopardy. One swears “under penalty of perjury.” Thus, the burden is on the person submitting the item to be absolutely sure the item is contextually accurate and not “Photoshopped” to change the context. If they’re proven to have committed perjury, there’s fines / fees and potentially jail time involved.
- The person submits the file to support a claim. They swear / affirm, under penalty of perjury, that the file is authentic and accurately depicts the context of the claim.
Then, someone else cries foul. Someone else claims that the file has been altered in a specific way – item(s) deleted / added – scene cropped – etc.
It’s this specific allegation of forgery that is needed to test the claims. If there is no specific claim, then one is engaged in a “blind” authentication (attempting to prove a negative). Continue reading